Effect of Shoulder–Workpiece Interference Depth on the Quality of Friction Stir Welding of AA7075-T6 Aluminium Alloy
The joining of high strength aluminium alloy AA7075-T6 sheets of 3 mm thickness was an attempt utilizing friction stir welding process. The effect of interference depth between tool shoulder and surface workpiece on the welding quality and its effect on the mechanical and metallography properties of welded joints were studied. This process is carried out using a composite tool consists of a concave shoulder made of H13 tool steel and cylindrical left-hand thread with 1mm pitch pin (probe) made of cobalt-based alloy MP159. The dimensions of tools were 14mm shoulder diameter and the pin has 5mm diameter and 2.7mm length. The tool rotation speed and welding speed were 981 rpm 169 mm/min respectively, and the tilt angle was 2°. The range of interference depth between the shoulder and workpiece was selected (0.05, 0.1, 0.15, 0.2, 0.25, and 0.3) mm. various tests were executed to evaluate the welding quality. The results show that lack of filling defect appeared on the welding surface at the interference depth 0.05 mm. An invisible tunnel and lack of penetration in the bottom of the stir zone appeared when the interference depths were 0.1 mm and 0.15 mm. Defect-free welds obtained when interference depths were (0.2, 0.25, and 0.3) mm. The welding efficiency of the defect-free welds was in the range (85.3-92.3%) depending on the ultimate tensile strength of the parent alloy.